Instructional Design for Axial and Locomotor Movement
Melinda Mansouri

Introduction
This instructional design plan is being developed for a Dance 1A class at Indian Hills Middle School in Jordan School District located in Sandy, Utah. The design will encompass the skills outlined in objective two of the Utah State Office of Education (USOE) curriculum for Dance Education. This objective will require dancers to correctly identify and perform locomotor and axial movements within dance choreography. This is an important element for the beginning dance student. In order to establish a domain for this instructional design, the skills that included are locomotor and axial movements. These are the skill definitions that will be used for this instructional design.
• Locomotor movement is movement that travels through space.
• Axial movement is movement that occurs in a stationary position.


Learner
The learners are female with an age range of 13-15 years old. They are enrolled in an elective dance class at Indian Hills Middle School located in Sandy, Utah. The following graphs show the ethnic profile for Jordan School District and Indian Hills Middle School.


There is a lack of diversity throughout this particular school district. The learners are from a high socio-economic group; the property tax base for homes within the schools boundaries is one of the highest in the district. Due to this high socioeconomic group many of the students have had prior dance experience in a private school setting. Of the twenty-nine students surveyed seventeen had five or more years of prior experience. One had three to five years of prior experience, six had one to three years of prior experience, and zero had no prior dance experience.
The learners were asked to rank several class activities according to importance. The activities included: technical skills, vocabulary, music editing, and skills across the floor, choreography, and performance preparation. The results of the survey showed the following priority (ordered according to the highest priority): Choreography, technical skills, and performance preparation. Vocabulary, music editing, and across the floor activities did not receive any votes. This instructional design has been developed with a target audience in mind. Although, specific information has been gathered about one group of students the information can be used for other groups that are similar in profile.
Pre-requisite skills

The instructor and/or evaluator need to be able to have a working knowledge of locomotor and axial movement. A working knowledge would be defined as able to identify, perform, and evaluate the required locomotor and axial skills. The instructor should be a certified dance educator. The scoring rubric is located in Appendix C, and the instructor needs to be able to use the rubric to score the second and third section of the evaluation. The students need basic flexibility and a desire to learn the material.

Context
The setting for this assessment is a Dance 1A Class at Indian Hills Middle School part of Jordan School District in Sandy, Utah. The assessment will take place in two locations the school auditorium and the computer lab. The auditorium is called a Kiva. A photograph has been included in Appendix B to illustrate the uniqueness of this type of stage setting. The dancers will use the stage area to demonstrate the various movement sequences. The computer lab can accommodate a class of thirty-two students. The lab does not have air conditioning and it is typically ten degrees hotter that the rest of the school. It will be important to test on a cool day so that the warmer temperature does not influence the students. This will occur during the third class of the day 10:40a.m. -12p.m. The dancers are dressed in standard dance attire (form fitting clothing) and will need to complete a warm-up before beginning the assessment. Included in Appendix B are
photograph’s that show examples of the dancers in proper attire.


Content

The following definitions will be used for locomotor and axial movement.

• Locomotor movement is movement that travels through space.
• Axial movement is movement that occurs in a stationary position.

The content will be based on the objective two from the Utah Dance Core Curriculum for Dance 1A.

Objective 2

Develop knowledge and skills of axial movements and basic locomotor
steps.

• Perform basic axial sequences demonstrating dynamic alignment and dynamic balance; articulation of the spine, integration of the spine with the periphery, articulation of peripheral body parts promoting mobility, and stability and use of breath to integrate movement patterns.

• Perform the five basic locomotor steps (walk, run, hop, jump, leap) and the basic locomotor combinations (skip, gallop, slide). (USOE, 2001)

The overall objective for this instructional design project:

The students will be asked to identify, perform, and create a unique choreography project based on the dancers understanding of axial and locomotor movement.

Photographs of the dancers are available in Appendix B performing the axial movement skills. The locomotor skills are very common with the exception of the leap. If you need to review what the skills look like the PowerPoint assessment would include all of the different skills.

Application to Teaching and Learning for Understanding Theory
David N. Perkins and Chris Unger created the theory Teaching and Learning for Understanding Theory that will be used as the basis for this instructional design project. This cognitive theory has a basis that can be used for a typically psychomotor skill found in dance. “The primary goal of this theory is the cultivation of understanding as a performance capability”(Reigeluth, p.92) The focus on the performance capability is what makes the instructional design fit with the theory. “To put it in a phrase, understanding a topic is a matter of being able to think and act creatively and competently with what one knows about the topic.” (Perkins and Unger as cited in Reigeluth, 1999 P. 97)
The following steps from Teaching and Learning for Understanding Theory will be used to design the instruction.

Theory Application
Select Topic

1. Central to a domain or discipline.

The standards for this objective can be connected to three standards:The Utah State Office of Education (USOE) Standards for Dance 1A, The Tennessee Fine Arts Curriculum Standards (Crosswhite, 2001), and The National Standards for Dance (2003). The importance of the chosen skills is seen from state to state as well and in a national standard. The citations of the three individual standards are available in Appendix A. Based on this information the skills are observed to be central to this domain.

2. Accessible and interesting to students.

The movements being explored in the locomotor section are prerequisite skills that students of this grade level have experienced. Examples are walk, run, hop, jump, and leap. The new movements will be the Axial, which include: heel stretch, arabesque, and passé. The relationship of each of these movements is the basis for choreography. In the task analysis the students were surveyed and choreography ranked first in the students list of priorities.

3. Interesting to the teacher.

I find the relationships between the two primary types of movement very interesting. The student’s creativity during this assignment often inspires me to create movement in new ways.

4. Connectable. Axial and Locomotor Skills.

The students will be starting with the identification of the movement types, then physically performing different types of movement, and then creating choreography based on the two primary movement types. This type of progression allows the students to see why the information is important to the discipline of dance. Outside this domain I often find myself seeing the different patterns of movement in normal pedestrian types of movement in the mall or on a crowded street.

Understanding goals

1. Explicit and public

2. Nested.

3. Central to the discipline. Objectives
1.The content will be based on the objective two from the Utah Dance Core
Curriculum for Dance 1A. The core curriculum for Dance 1A is available on the internet.

2. Objective 2
Terminal objective
• Develop knowledge and skills of axial movements and basic locomotor steps.
Enabling Objectives
• Perform basic axial sequences demonstrating dynamic alignment and dynamic balance; articulation of the spine, integration of the spine with the periphery, articulation of peripheral body parts promoting mobility, and stability and use of breath to integrate movement patterns.
• Perform the five basic locomotor steps (walk, run, hop, jump, leap) and the basic locomotor combinations (skip, gallop, slide). (USOE, 2001)
3. These standard reference back to the three standards that are available in Appendix A
Understanding Performances

1. Relate directly to understanding goals.


2. Develop and apply understanding through practice.


3. Engage multiple learning styles and forms of expression.

4. Promote reflective engagement in challenging, approachable tasks.

5. Publicly demonstrate understanding. The dancers will be asked to perform the skills in a variety of ways.

1. The dancers will be asked to differentiate, perform, and create movement based the understanding goals (objectives).
2. The instructional design scaffolds the learning in steps. These steps are built upon the psychomotor philosophy of repetitive practice.
3. The dancers will need to use multiple learning styles to complete the final choreography project. The dancers will be asked to identify, perform, and create choreography, based on dance as the form of expression.
4. The students will be challenged as they progress through the instructional design. The choreography segment will be a physical activity, but part of the assignment will be to reflect on the skills and how to creatively incorporate them into a unique project.
5. The students will perform the finished choreography in front of the class. All of the peers in the class will be performing their own unique choreography project. The dance instructor will be using a rubric to grade the unique choreography project.

Ongoing Assessment
1. Criteria are relevant, explicit, and public.

The assessment will be based on the same terminal and enabling objectives used in the instructional design. The objectives being used are explicit, and are published on the Internet.

2. Occur frequently.

The testing or informal assessment will occur throughout the instructional process. Feedback on the dancers progress will be critical during these assessments.


3. Multiple sources.

The formal feedback will be from the certified dance instructor. The informal feedback will be from peers completing the same task. The third type of feedback will be from the dancer who is conducting a self-assessment.

4. Gauge progress and inform planning.

Assessment will occur at each section of the instructional design.
Progress will be assessed at each of the test or assessment points built into the instruction. This will allow the student to stay in that level of the scaffold for additional practice or move on to the next level. The student will make the decision to stay or move on to the next step of the process.

Instruction
This instruction will cover three different days in class. The first day will be spent in locomotor skills, the second day exploring different axial movements, and the third day will provide a variety of activities for the student to analyze movement, perform specific movement, and also create movement combinations. The fourth and fifth days will be for formal assessment.
Instruction for day one is on locomotor skills.
• The class will begin with the question what is a locomotor skill? If someone raises their hand then the instructor will ask them to show me a locomotor skill with their body. The class then can start to ask questions about the skill. The dancers will continue on the guided inquiry process. If no one raises their hand the designer needs to wait, and then after at least two minutes has lapsed give the class the first clue: You used a locomotor movement to arrive in this class. The instructional designer has chosen to use a guided inquiry process is to provide a working definition for the students that included examples and non-examples.
• The next part of the instruction moves to exploring the movement in an improvisational situation. The students are given different commands (walk, run, jump, hop, skip, leap, gallop, slide, and zoom) they travel throughout the space choosing their own pathways exploring each different type of movement. If a dancer needs instruction on a specific movement the skill would be broken down into parts and then practiced by the student. When the class is able to perform each of the movements then we will move on to the next activity.
• Divide the dancers into four groups with seven to eight dancers per group. They are asked to create a locomotor obstacle course. The requirements are all movements must be locomotor. The obstacle course will need stay in the assigned section of the auditorium. Each group member must have the course memorized if they are randomly assigned to lead another group through the obstacle course. The students are given time to create. When all groups are done with the creation, one dancer is chosen to lead the other three groups through the created course. The groups will then rotate in a clockwise fashion until each group has experienced the four different obstacle courses.
• The students will then be asked what is a locomotor skill. The definition should grow as a large number of the students in the class add to the functional definition.
Instruction for day two is to explore axial movement.
• The students will be asked to define locomotor movement. When the correct response is given. The instructor will inform the students that the movement we are exploring today is the opposite of locomotor movement.
• A working definition of an axial movement will be established. At this point the instructor will ask different students to demonstrate an axial movement for the class. The instructor throughout these demonstrations will provide feedback.
• The next section of the instruction is designed to give the students practice opportunities for axial movement. The lights are dimmed to create a safe mood in the room. (If the room is not as light the students are more willing to explore different movement than if the lights are shining brightly). The students respond to commands asking them to perform familiar axial skills that have been used prior to this point in class.
• The next step is to have them choose their own axial movements. A cd has been created that changes songs at different small intervals (10 seconds, 17 seconds, ect.) The students are asked to change their axial movement each time the song changes. The instructor should move around the room giving feedback to the students during this activity.
• Following this activity the students are asked to work in partners and create three axial movement positions with a partner. Time is given for the student to create each activity. The students will be encouraged to give feedback to their partner during this activity.
• The students will perform the three axial movements for the class at the end of class. The class members observing will be asked to provide feedback on the performances. The instructor should assign one group to analyze the movement and give constructive feedback. This type of analysis occurs frequently in my class and does not require instruction.
The third day of class will provide a variety of activities for the student to analyze movement, perform specific movement, and also create movement combinations.
• The students will review a video of dance performance. The class will be asked to identify if the movement in the clip is locomotor or axial. The students will write down their answers on a sheet of paper.
• After the class has completed this activity the instructor will review each video clip and explain the answer. The students will have the opportunity to ask questions and receive additional instruction during this time.
• The students will now move into the performance phase of class. The students will be asked to perform locomotor and axial movements. The beginning of the activity will be with commands and then the students will begin choosing their own movement to perform.
• The final activity for this day is to have the dancers work on creating a short choreography sequence that combines both locomotor and axial movement.
• At the conclusion of class each group will perform their choreography. The class will verbally identify the type of movement used in each combination.

Assessment
From this beginning point the students will be able to achieve the objectives at two different proficiency levels. These levels one and two will be ranked with one as the lowest and two as the highest. This level system is based on the Fine Arts Standards from the State of Tennessee. (Crosswhite, 2001) This information is available in Appendix A. If the students fail to meet level one they will need to repeat that section of the instruction until a level one can be achieved. Students who receive a level one would also be able to repeat the instructional activities to try to complete each section with a level two passing rate.
The formal assessment will consist of fifteen test items. This will be a three-part test. The first section will be questions that will be administered in a PowerPoint presentation and the students will need to answer questions that coordinate with the multimedia presentation. The second and third section will consist of a rubric used for
visual assessment of the performed movement and choreography project. Due to the expertise involved in the scoring the test administrator needs to be a certified
dance educator. The students will spend three class days exploring the movement prior to the formal assessment. The formal assessment will take two class periods. The first section of the test should take approximately ten minute to administer. Level one will require the dancer to identify the difference between locomotor and axial movement from a PowerPoint presentation. A Scranton type test would need to coordinate with the PowerPoint.
The second section will be administered individually. The visual assessment will take approximately one to two minutes per student. The importance of the locomotor and axial movements is shown by the three different standards that are going to serve as basis for creating this assessment. Each of the objectives that apply to this specific assessment has been highlighted in red. In the effort to only include the applicable material only the standards specific to the established domain have been included. Please view Appendix A to see a copy of the standards used as a basis for test development. Level two will require that the student perform a sequence of the basic five locomotor skills and an additional sequence of axial skills. The five locomotor skills that will be included in this assessment are walk, run, hop, jump, and leap. These are basic movement skills that are commonly used in sports as well as dance. These skills are also included in the first section of objective two located in the USOE Dance Curriculum. The axial skills will include arabesque, heel raise, and passé. Photographs of the axial skills have been included in Appendix B to help clarify the movement that is being evaluated. These photographs as well as video of the locomotor skills would be incorporated into the grading rubric for this part of the visual assessment. Level three will be a choreography project that will be created by the student and assessed according to a rubric.


Axial and Locomotor Movement Test


Section one-objective one
Objective Dancers will identify the elements of locomotor movement.

Item ID: 111
All item identifications are in the following format: Section #, Objective #, and Question # FORM: Fill in the blank Cognitive Process: Remember
Item Text: What type of movement is shown in the video?
Ans: locomotor
Graphic Resources: Video clip of a walking locomotor movement.
Audio Resources: N.A.

Item ID: 112 FORM: Multiple/multiple choice Cognitive Process: Remember
Item Text: Choose the three movements that are locomotor movements.
a. Walk
b. Run
c. Passé
d. Leap
e. Arabesque
Ans: a,b,d
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources:n/a


Item ID: 113 FORM: Fill in the blank. Cognitive Process: Remember
Item Text: Movement that travels through space is called _____________.
Ans: Locomotor
Graphic Resources: Video clip of running a locomotor movement.
Audio Resources:n/a

Axial and Locomotor Movement Test
Section one-objective two
Objective Dancers will identify the elements of axial movement

Item ID: 121 FORM: Fill in the blank. Cognitive Process: Remember
Item Text: Axial movements occur in a ________________ position.
Ans: stationary
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources:n/a


Item ID: 122 FORM: Fill in the blank. Cognitive Process: Remember
Item Text: What type of movement is the dancer in the video performing?
Ans: axial
Graphic Resources: Video will be used for both the locomotor movement as well as the axial so the format of the image does not influence the answer. Video of a dancer performing a heel stretch.
Audio Resources:n/a


Item ID: 123 FORM: Multiple/multiple choice. Cognitive Process: Remember
Item Text: Select the two answers that are examples of axial movement.
a. Walk
b. Run
c. Passé
d. Leap
e. Arabesque
Ans: c & e
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources:n/a


Axial and Locomotor Movement Test
Section one-objective three
Objective Dancers will classify if a movement is locomotor or axial from a multimedia presentation.

Item ID:131 FORM: Context Dependant item sets. Fill in the blank Cognitive Process: Understand
Item Text: Is the dancer in the film performing an axial or locomotor movement?

Ans: locomotor
Graphic Resources: A video clip of a leap will be shown.
Audio Resources:n/a


Item ID: 132 FORM: Context Dependant item sets. Fill in the blank. Cognitive Process: Understand
Item Text: The dancer is performing a ________, which is considered a __________ movement.
Ans: leap locomotor
Graphic Resources: The same video clip used in Item 131 of a leap will be shown.
Audio Resources:n/a


Item ID: 133 FORM: Context Dependant item sets. Fill in the blank. Cognitive Process: Understand
Item Text: The dancer in the video clip is performing a ____________ movement.
Ans: locomotor
Graphic Resources: The same video clip used in Item 131 of a leap will be shown.
Audio Resources:
Comments:


Axial and Locomotor Movement Test
Section one-objective three
Objective Dancers will classify if a movement is locomotor or axial from a multimedia presentation.

Item ID: 134 FORM: Fill in the blank. Cognitive Process: Understand
Item Text: Would this movement be classified as axial or locomotor?
Ans: axial
Graphic Resources: A video clip of a dancer performing a Passé position will be viewed.
Audio Resources:n/a


Item ID: 135 FORM: Fill in the blank Cognitive Process: Understand
Item Text: Is the movement shown in the video sequence axial or locomotor?
Ans: axial
Graphic Resources: A video clip of a dancer performing an arabesque position will be viewed.
Audio Resources:


Item ID: 136 FORM: Matching Cognitive Process: Understand
Item Text: Match the skills in column a with the movement type in column b
1. Passé a. Axial
2. Arabesque b. Locomotor
3. Leap
4. Heel Raise
5. Walk
6. Run
Ans: 1-a 2-a 3-b 4-a 5-b 6-b
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources:n/a

Axial and Locomotor Movement Test
Section two-objective one
Objective The dancer will execute three locomotor movements: walk, run, and leap.
Intended number of items (per form) 3
Item ID: 211-213 FORM: Rubric- see comments Cognitive Process: Apply
Item Text: The test administrator will give the dancers commands before using the rubric to determine performance level. These are the possible commands to use for walk.
1. Using the dance space provided. Please perform a walk across the floor?
2. Using your body please demonstrate a walk across the floor.
3. Perform a walk.
Ans: Dancer performs a walking movement that travels through space. The dancers score is determined by the grading rubric.
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources:n/a
Comments: I do not know what form to use on the questions that coordinate with the rubrics. I have listed rubric, but need some guidance.

Item ID: 214-216 FORM: Rubric Cognitive Process: Apply
Item Text: The test administrator will give the dancers commands before using the rubric to determine performance level. These are the possible commands to use for run.
1. Show me a running movement.
2. Please run.
3. Perform a run with your body.
Ans: Dancer performs a running movement that travels through space. The dancers score is determined by the grading rubric.
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources: n/a

Item ID: 217-219 FORM: Rubric Cognitive Process: Apply
Item Text: The test administrator will give the dancers commands before using the rubric to determine performance level. These are the possible commands to use for leap.
1. Perform a leap?
2. Will you use your body to perform a leap?
3. Demonstrate a leap with your body.
Ans: Dancer performs a leap that travels through space. The dancers score is determined by the grading rubric.
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources:n/a


Axial and Locomotor Movement Test
Section two-objective one
Objective The dancer will execute five locomotor movements: walk, run, hop, jump, and leap.

Item ID: 21.10 FORM: Rubric? Cognitive Process: Apply
Item Text: Choose a locomotor movement to perform for me?
Ans: If the locomotor movement travels through space the student would receive credit.
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources:n/a

Axial and Locomotor Movement Test
Section two-objective two
Objective The dancer will execute three axial movements heel stretch, arabesque, and passe'.

Item ID: 221-223 FORM: Rubric Cognitive Process: Apply
1. Item Text: I will be asking you to perform a variety of movements. Use the space provided to demonstrate each movement.
a. Arabesque
b. Heel stretch
c. Passé
Ans: Dancer performs each of the axial movements that occur in a stationary position. The dancers score is determined by the grading rubric.
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources:n/a

Item ID: 224-227 FORM: Rubric Cognitive Process: Apply
Item Text: The test administrator will give the dancers commands before using the rubric to determine performance level. These are the possible commands to use for arabesque.
1. Demonstrate an arabesque.
2. Show me an arabesque.
3. Will you perform an arabesque?
4. Demonstrate an arabesque with your body?
Ans: Dancer performs an arabesque. The dancers score is determined by the grading rubric.
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources:n/a

Item ID: 228-22.10 FORM: Rubric? Cognitive Process: Apply
Item Text: The test administrator will give the dancers commands before using the rubric to determine performance level. These are the possible commands to use for heel raise.
1. Perform a heel raise.
2. Demonstrate a heel raise.
3. Show me a heel raise.
Ans: Dancer performs a heel raise. The dancers score is determined by the grading rubric.
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources: n/a


Axial and Locomotor Movement Test
Section two-objective two
Objective The dancer will execute three axial movements heel stretch, arabesque, and passe'.

Item ID: 22.11-22.13 FORM: Cognitive Process: Apply
Item Text: The test administrator will give the dancers commands before using the rubric to determine performance level. These are the possible commands to use for passé.
1. Passé position please.
2. Perform a passé.
3. Demonstrate a passé.
Ans: Dancer performs a passé. The dancers score is determined by the grading rubric.
Graphic Resources: n/a
Audio Resources: n/a

Bibliography
Crosswhite, J., (2001) Fine Arts Curriculum Standards. Retrieved
November 1, 2003. from
http://www.state.tn.us/education/ci/cistandards2001/music/
cifadance912.htm

Jordan School District Web Site (n.d.) retrieved November 5, 2003 from

USOE. Utah State Office of Education (2001) Dance 1A (9-12) Objective
2. Retrieved November 1, 2003. from

National Standards for Dance Education. (n.d.) Retrieved November 1,
2003 from
http://www.philsch.k12.pa.us/ll/curriculumsupport/physicaleducation/
nationaldance.htm#9-12